Highly unlikely. Bacteria can adapt (=learn) to live in a nuclear reactor, but it will remain being bacteria.
Bacteria mutate very quickly (minutes or even seconds). If it was at all possible for bacteria to mutate into something else, scientists would notice it when they breed bacteria and manipulate their living conditions. No spontaneous or induced mutations have ever been noticed... I seriously doubt if it is possible to genetically engineer any higher lifeform from bacteria.
Note, that existence of higher lifeforms, including humans, is practically impossible without bacteria. Eco-systems simply cannot sustain themselves without bacteria. If bacteria evolved to something else, eco-systems would collapse.
In your own gut you have billions if not trillions of bacteria. If these bacteria were not there - you will not be able to digest any food and you will die from a complex chain if consequences.